The new religion of some scholars:Music. why?

Bismillah Ar Rahman Ar Rahim

May Allah always protect us from the accursed shaytan and from such scholars who deny the verses of the Quran and who explain the religion according to their whims and reality.

Is music allowed or illegal for us to listen, to play? In some countries, music is taken as a pillar of faith, the power of the soul….subhan Allah. this is a dangerous approach and every believer must understand that Allah is the Creator of the all human minds and souls and He knows exactly what the minds and souls need as food and nourishment. This is why He sent down the Qur’an. The reading of the Qur’an on a daily basis as well as listening to it, procure peace, calm, intelligence, balance and wisdom. Music creates emotion. No human being can survive with emotions, no human beings can evolve or take a decision out of emotion- Ammaara Uddeen


Shaytan has challenged Allah that he will take us away from His Deen using his voice.

Everywhere we go, there is music around us. We hear music everywhere

There are limited cases of innocent singing or chanting without any instrumental accompaniment or to the accompaniment of a simple hand drum (daff) on certain occasions designated by the sunnah.

40 Hadith on Music [from the site  The article was taken from the majlis of south African Ulama. Every Hadith is referenced. There are plenty of Hadith that are rejected by a few yet they are considered sahih by others].

(1) Hadhrat Abu Maalik Ash’ari (radhiyallahu anhu) says that he heard Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) say: “Most certainly, there will be in my Ummah people who will make lawful fornication, silk, liquor and musical instruments.” (Bukhaari)

(2) In another version of this narration, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Most certainly, people from my Ummah will consume liquor which they will describe with some other name. Over their heads will be playing musical instruments and singing girls. Allah will cause the earth to swallow them, and from among them He will transform into apes and pigs.” (Ibn Maajah)

The punishment for music and singing is exceptionally severe. Some juhhaal (ignoramuses) have attempted to escape the condemnation of music and singing stated in this Hadith by presenting a very stupid argument.

This Hadith is an unambiguous assertion of the hurmat (being haraam/prohibition) of musical instruments. In this Hadith, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) uses the word (Yasta-hil-loona, i.e. they will make lawful). He mentioned four acts which people in the later ages would make lawful, viz. fornication, liquor, silk and music. This presupposes that these acts are haraam. It is meaningless to say that a lawful act will be made lawful. This absurdity is the consequence of the stupid and false contention of the proponents of music and singing. A haraam act is made lawful, and this is precisely what Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said.

The time will dawn when Muslims will make halaal these four haraam acts.

(3) Imraan Bin Husain (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “In this Ummah will be earthquakes, disfiguration (of faces which will be transformed into apes and pigs) and showers of stone (descending o­n them from the heaven).” A man from among the Muslimeen said: “O Rasulullah! When will this be?” Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “When singing girls and musical instruments will become profuse and when liquor will be consumed (in abundance).”(Tirmizi)

(4) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “During the last of ages (in close proximity to Qiyaamah) a nation from my Ummah will be disfigured (and transformed) into apes and pigs.” The Sahaabah said: “O Rasulullah! Will they be Muslim?” Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Yes. They will be testifying that there is no deity but Allah and that I am His Rasool, and they will be fasting (in the month of Ramadhaan).” The Sahaabah asked: “O Rasulullah! What will be their condition (to warrant such chastisement)?” Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “They will be indulging in musical instruments, singing girls, musical drums, and they will be consuming liquor. They will o­ne night go to sleep after their liquor and amusement. When they arise in the morning, they will have been disfigured (and transformed into apes and pigs).” (Kaf-fur Ruaa’)

It is apparent from this Hadith that the musical drum (the tablah of the qawwaals) and similar other kinds of musical drums are not the duff mentioned in the Ahaadith. Musical drums have been declared haraam unanimously by all authorities from the very age of the Sahaabah.

(5) According to another Hadith, also narrated by Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu), Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “I take oath by The Being Who has sent me with the Haqq (Truth)! The world will not come to an end until earthquakes, the descent of showers of stones (from the heaven) and disfigurement of faces (which will be transformed into apes and swines) had not taken place.’ The Sahaabah said: ‘When will that happen, O Rasulullah?’ He replied: ‘When you see women seated o­n saddles (i.e. riding horses and in this age, driving cars); when singing girls are to be found in profusion; when false testimony becomes rampant, and when homosexuality and lesbianism become prevalent.” (Bazzaar and Tibraani)

(6) Hadhrat Ali Bin Abi Taalib (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “When my Ummah indulges in fifteen misdeeds, calamities will settle o­n them. Among these are singing girls and musical instruments.” (Tirmizi)

(7) Sahl Bin Sa’d (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “There will befall this Ummat earthquakes, disfigurement of faces and showers of stones.’ It was said: ‘O Rasulullah! When will this happen?’ Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘When singing girls become in profusion and liquor is made lawful.” (Ibn Maajah)

Numerous Sahaabah have narrated Ahaadith in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) warned of disasters overwhelming the Ummah as a consequence of the profusion of music, singing and singing girls. Among these Sahaabah are: Hadhrat Abu Maalik Ash’ari, Hadhrat Imraan Bin Husain, Hadhrat Abu Hurairah, Hadhrat Ali, Hadhrat Sahl Bin Sa’d As-Saaidi, Hadhrat Ubaadah Bin Saamit, Hadhrat Abu Umaamah, Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas, Hadhrat Saeed Bin Khudri, Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Bishr, Hadhrat Anas, Hadhrat Abdur Rahmaan Bin Saabit and Hadhrat Aishah (ridhwaanullaahi alayhim aj-maeen).

(8) Hadhrat Naafi’ (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Once when Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) heard the sound of a shepherd’s flute, he placed his fingers in both ears (to block the sound of the music), and he diverted his mount from that path. (As they rode o­n), he would say: ‘O Naafi’, can you still hear (the sound)?’ I would say: ‘Yes.’ He would then continue riding. o­nly when I said: ‘I can no longer hear it’, did he remove his fingers from his ears. Then he returned to the road. He then said: ‘I saw Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) doing like this when he had heard the flute of a shepherd.” (Ahmad and Abu Dawood)

This was the reaction of the devotees of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). They could not tolerate the voice of shaitaan. When music dinned into their ears, they literally plugged their ears with their fingers. By what stretch of reasoning and o­n what basis of shame and honesty can it be claimed that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) had permitted music and singing? He had described it as the voice of shaitaan. He would plug his ears to block the sound of shaitaan’s voice entering his ears.

(9) Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Verily, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) made haraam liquor, gambling, the musical drum and the tambourine. And, every intoxicant is haraam.” (Ahmad and Abu Dawood)

(10) Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Verily, Allah has made haraam liquor, gambling, the musical drum, and every intoxicant is haraam.” (Ahmad, Abu Dawood, Baihqi, etc.)

(11) Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “The musical drum (tablah) is haraam. Liquor is haraam, and musical instruments are haraam.” (Kaf-fur Ruaa’)

(12) Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “Verily, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) heard a man singing o­ne night. He then said: ‘His Salaat is unacceptable! His Salaat is unacceptable! His Salaat is unacceptable!” (Nailul Autaar)

(13) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Listening to music and singing is sinful. Sitting at such gatherings is fisq (immoral transgression). Deriving pleasure from it is kufr.” (Nailul Autaar)

(14) Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “I have been sent (by Allah) to destroy musical instruments……..The earning of a male singer and a female singer is haraam. The earning of zina is haraam. It is incumbent o­n Allah not to allow a body nourished by haraam, entry into Jannah.” (Kaf-fur Ruaa’)

The evil of music and singing is sufficiently abominable to warrant it being lumped together with zina (fornication). o­ne Hadith describes singing as “the spell of shaitaan.”

(15) Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “I have been sent (by Allah Ta’ala) to destroy the musical drum (tablah) and the flute.” (Jam’ul Jawaami’)

The tablah and other forms of musical drums are not to be confused with the duff for which there is limited permissibility.

(16) Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The earning of a singer is haraam and her singing is haraam.” (Nailul Autaar)

(17) Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) prohibited beating of the duff (drum) and the sound of the flute.” (Nailul Autaar)

From this Hadith as well as others, the ambiguity about the duff is eliminated. It is clear from several Ahaadith that the general ruling of prohibition applies to even the duff. However, an exception has been made for o­nly the duff for the Days of Eid and marriage occasions provided no haraam acts are committed. This Hadith has the effect of abrogation. It cancels out the other narrations in which the duff was allowed. The fact that Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) and other Sahaabah too propagated the general prohibition of the duff even after the demise of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) is sufficient substantiation for the abrogating force of this Hadith as well as other Ahaadith which also mention the prohibition of the duff.

(18) Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) forbade beating the duff, playing the harp and blowing the flute.” (Kanzul Ummaal)

(19) Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Verily, singing generates hypocrisy in the heart just as water causes farm-produce to grow”. (Baihaqi)

(20) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Love for singing germinates hypocrisy in the heart just as water causes plants to grow.”

(21) Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Beware of listening to musical instruments and singing, for verily, both these acts germinate nifaaq (hypocrisy) in the heart just as water causes vegetables to grow.” (Kaf-fur Ru’aa’)

(22) Hadhrat Anas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever sits and listens to a singing girl, Allah will pour molten lead into his ears o­n the Day of Qiyaamah.” (Ibn Asaakir)

On what basis now can the permissibility of music and singing be argued? The severity of the punishment should be an adequate deterrent to abstain even if some narrations indicate permissibility.

(23) Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever dies while he has a singing slave girl, do not perform Janaazah Salaat for him.” (Haakim)

(24) Safwaan Bin Umayyah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Amr Bin Qurrah said (to Rasulullah – sallallahu alayhi wasallam): “I am very unfortunate. I do not see any way for acquiring my rizq except by means of my duff. Therefore, grant me permission to sing (i.e. with my duff) such songs which will be devoid of any immorality (evil).’ Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) replied: “I do not give you permission. There is no honour and no goodness (in what you are saying). O enemy of Allah! You are a liar. Most certainly, Allah has ordained for you halaal rizq, but you have chosen what Allah has made haraam for you in place of what He has made halaal for you of the sustenance He has decreed for you.” (Baihqi, Tibraani, Dailmi)

(25) Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “On the Day of Qiyaamah, Allah Azza Wa Jal will proclaim: “Where are those who had protected their ears and their eyes from the musical instruments of shaitaan?” (Allah Ta’ala will instruct the Malaaikah): “Separate them (from the multitudes of people).” They (the Angels) will separate them, and have them seated o­n dunes of musk and ambergris then Allah Ta’ala will say to the Malaaikah: “Recite to them My Tasbeeh and My Tamjeed.” The Malaaikah will then recite to them with such beautiful voices, the likes of which no o­ne had ever heard.”

This Hadith has been narrated by Allaamah Ibn Hajar Makki from Dailmi. The Sahaabi narrating it is Hadhrat Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu). Allaamah Ali Muttaqi also narrates this Hadith, but from the Sahaabi, Hadhrat Jaabir (radhiyallahu anhu)-Kanzul Ummaal. Allamah Muhammad Bin Muhammad Maghribi narrates this Hadith from Hadhrat Bin Al-Munkadir (Jam’ul Fawaaid). Imaam Tha-aalabi also narrates it from Muhammad Bin Al-Munkadir, but from Ibn Wahab. – (Jawaahirul Hassaan)

Those who indulge in the haraam music and singing of this world, will be denied the music of Jannat.

(26) Hadhrat Abu Musa Ash’ari (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever listens to the sound of singing, he will not be given permission to listen to the (beautiful) voices of the Ruhaaniyyeen in Jannat.” When it was asked: ‘Who are the Ruhaaniyyeen?’ Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The Qaaris of Jannat.” (Kanzul Ummaal)

In his Tafseer, Imaam Qurtubi comments: “We have mentioned this Hadith in Kitaabut Tathkirah along with other similar examples. Thus, he who consumes wine will be denied the pure drink (of Jannat) in the Aakhirah. He who wears silk will not wear silk in the Aakhirah, etc. All this is correct in meaning……”

(27) Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) prohibited singing and listening to singing, and (he also prohibited) gossip.” (Kaf-fur Ruaa’)

(28) Zaid Bin Arqam (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Once a youth while singing passed by Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) who was walking in a street of Madinah. Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Alas! O young man! Why do you not sing with the Qur’aan (i.e. recite it beautifully instead of singing songs)?’ He repeated this statement several times.” (Dailmi)

(29) Hadhrat Abu Umaamah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “When someone raises his voice with singing, Allah sends two shaitaans who sit o­n his shoulders striking his breast with their heels until he stops (singing).” (Tibraani)

(30) Hadhrat Abdur Rahmaan Bin Auf (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “I have forbidden two ignorant immoral voices: (The first)- the sounds of futility at the time of merrymaking, and the musical instruments of shaitaan. (The second)- the wailing sounds at the time of calamity when the face is struck and the garments are torn.” (Haakim in Mustadrak)

(31) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The bell is among the musical instruments of shaitaan.” (Abu Dawood)

(32) Kisaan narrates that Hadhrat Muaawiyyah (radhiyallahu anhu) stated in his Khutbah: “Verily, Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) forbade seven things, and I too forbid you from these things. Know that these things are: Loud wailing (on occasions of death), singing, pictures………” (Tibraani)

(33) In a lengthy Hadith narrated by Hadhrat Abu Umaamah (radhiyallahu anhu), it is mentioned that o­n the occasion of the expulsion of shaitaan from the heaven and his exile to earth, he (Iblees) supplicated to Allah Ta’ala: “O my Rabb! You have exiled me to earth and you have made me accursed………Now, therefore bestow to me a caller (who can call to my path).’ Allah Ta’ala said: “(Your caller) is musical instruments………..” (Tibraani)

(34) Allaamah Qurtubi, in his Tafseer, narrates the following Hadith: “Verily, o­nce when Abdullah Bin Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) heard someone singing, he hastily left the place. This reached Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam). He thereupon commented: ‘Indeed, Ibn Umm Abd (i.e. Abdullah Ibn Mas’ud) is an honourable abd (slave ofAllah).”

Two salient facts emerge from this Hadith: o­ne- Hadhrat Abdullah Bin Mas’ud (radhiyallahu anhu) was aware of the prohibition of music and singing, hence he hastily left the place. Two- Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) approved of his action and commended him. This too clearly indicates the evil of singing and music.

(35) Hadhrat Abu Burzah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “We were with the Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) o­n a journey when he heard two men singing. The o­ne was responding to the other (by means of singing poetry). Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) then said: ‘Look who these two are.’ They (the Sahaabah) said: ‘They are so and so (naming them).’ Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) then cursed, saying: ‘O Allah! Cast them upside down in Jahannum.” (Majmauz Zawaaid)

The gravity of the prohibition of singing and music should be apparent from the vehemence of the curse of Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam).

(36) Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Verily, Allah Ta’ala sent me as a Mercy and a Guide to the worlds, and He has commanded me to destroy musical instruments……”

(37) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrates: “Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Verily, the bell is of the musical instruments of shaitaan.” (Muslim and Abu Dawood)

(38) Hadhrat Abu Hurairah (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated that Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: “The Malaaikah do no associate with a group in which there is a dog or a bell.” (Muslim and Abu Dawood)

(39) Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) narrated: “Verily, Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) instructed that all bells be cut off from the necks of the camels o­n the Day of Badr.” (Musnad Ahmad)

(40) Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) narrated: “I heard Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) saying: “Verily, with every bell is a shaitaan.” (Abu Dawood)

The tinkling and jingling of bells are also associated with shaitaani music, hence the stringent prohibition.

Now that these numerous Ahaadith in which Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) severely condemns music and singing has dawned o­n those who lacked awareness, there cannot be a Muslim with a healthy Imaan who will still believe in the permissibility of the voice of shaitaan.

[extracted from Sautush Shaitan]



The Qur’aan Majeed states: “And, among people are those who purchase talks of futility (lahwal Hadith) thereby misleading (others) without knowledge from the Path of Allah, and they make of it (Allah’s Path) a mockery. For such people is the disgraceful punishment. And, when Our aayaat are recited to them, he turns away in arrogance as if he did not hear it; as if there are plugs in his ears. Give him the tidings of a painful punishment.” (31:6-7)

(1) Ibn Jareer reports that Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “This aayat was revealed in regard to a man among the Quraish who had purchased a slave woman who was a singer (for the purpose of singing).”

It was the practice of a certain enemy of Islam to divert people from listening to the Qur’aan Majeed with music and singing. He had purchased a slave woman for this specific purpose.

The Qur’aan Shareef, in its inimitable eloquence describes this singing and music with the terms ‘lahwal Hadith’, bringing within its scope not only music and singing, but all futile activities such as play and amusement which divert man’s attention from the purpose of his creation and from the Thikr of Allah Ta’ala. In addition to the applicability of the Qur’aanic aayaat to their relevant specific incidents which occasioned their revelation, the terms employed by the Qur’aan constitute directives for all present and future exigencies having the same common effect (illat). In line with this eloquent style and the timeless nature of the Ahkaam, the Qur’aan brings music and singing within the ambit of the generical terms, lahwal Hadith. Hence, all futile, nonsensical and evil acts which divert man from Allah Ta’ala are ordained haraam by this aayat. Among the acts which have such a diversionary effect to the highest degree are music and singing. Even mubah (initially permissible) acts will become unlawful if due to excessive indulgence they divert man from Allah’s remembrance or they induce him to commit futility and haraam.

(2) Narrating from Abu Salmah (radhiyallahu anhu), Imaam Baghawi (rahmatullah alayh) states:”Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘It is not lawful to teach girls to become singers and their price is haraam. In this regard was revealed the aayat: “And, among people are those who purchase lahwal Hadith….”

(3) Tirmizi and other Muhadditheen, narrating from Abu Umaamah (radhiyallahu anhu) said:”Rasulullah (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‘Do not sell singing girls nor purchase them, and do not teach them. There is no goodness in any trade-dealing in them. The money thus acquired is haraam….. In this regard was revealed the aayat: “And among people are those who purchase lahwal Hadith…”

(4) The eminent Mufassir, Imaam Mujaahid (rahmatullah alayh) said: “The reference (of lahwal Hadith) is to singing girls and singers.” In another narration, Hadhrat Mujaahid (rahmatullah alayh) said: “It refers to singing and every play and futility.” (Ahkaamul Qur’aan)

(5) In an exceptionally stern rebuke for those who indulge in singing and music, Hadhrat Makhool (rahmatullah alayh) said: “I do not perform Janaazah Salaat on him (one who indulges in music and singing) because Allah Ta’ala says (in the Qur’aan): ‘And, among people are those who purchase lahwal Hadith…” (Tafseer Mazhari)

(6) Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) who was a very senior Aalim among the Sahaabah, explaining this aayat said:”By Allah! Its meaning is singing.” (As-Sunanul Kubra of Baihqi) The same is mentioned in Mustadrak and Tafseer Ibn Jareer. Imaam Ibn Jareer (rahmatullah alayh) narrates in his Tafseer that when people asked Hadhrat Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallahu anhu) about the meaning of this aayat, he responded:”It refers to singing. I take oath by The Being besides Whom there is no deity but He.’ He repeated this statement thrice.” (Tafseer Ibn Jareer)

(7) Explaining this aayat, Hadhrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullah alayh) said:”Verily, lahwal Hadith refers to everything which diverts you from the ibaadat of Allah and from His remembrance, such as story-telling during the night, jokes, futility, singing and similar acts.” (Tafseer Ruhul Ma-aani)

(8) In another narration, Hadhrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullah alayh) said: “This aayat was revealed in regard to singing and musical instruments.” (Tafseer Ibn Katheer)

(9) Haafiz Ibn Hareer (rahmatullah alayh) states in the tafseer of this aayat: “It refers to singing and listening to it.”

(10) The eminent Sahaabi, Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) said: “It means singing.” (Ighaathatul Luhfaan) This Qur’aanic aayat which severely criticizes lahwal Hadith, while it brings all forms of futility and nonsensical activities within its scope, specifically refers to singing and music. This is the unanimous tafseer of the authorities of the Shariah – the Sahaabah, Taabieen and Tab-e-Taabieen.

Allah Ta’ala states in the Qur’aan Majeed: “They(the Mu’mineen) do not attend zoor. And when they pass by futility, they pass by with dignity.” (25:72)

(1) Commenting on the meaning of this aayat, Hadhrat Muhammad Bin Hanafi (rahmatullah alayh) said: “Az-zoor here means singing. Laith said so on the authority of Mujaahid…………And, az-zoor is baseless talk and it also applies to baseless acts. Singing is of the greatest acts of zoor.” (Shawaahidut Tafseer)

(2) Imaam Abu Bakr Jassaas, commenting on this aayat said: “It has been narrated from Imaam Abu Hanifah (rahmatullah alayh) that az-zoor is singing.”

Allah Ta’ala states in the Qur’aan Majeed: “And hound from among them with your voice whomever you are able to gain control over.” (17:64)

When shaitaan was ignominiously expelled from Jannat, he vowed to mislead the servants of Allah Ta’ala. In response, Allah Ta’ala made the aforementioned proclamation.

The Mufassireen of the Qur’aan say that the meaning of ‘your voice’ in the context of this aayat refers to singing. Shaitaan has been given the ability of singing. He inspires his myriads of followers with his art of music and singing, thereby gaining an effective grip over their brains and hearts. With his voice (singing and music), shaitaan casts his spell over human beings. With music and singing, he deposits them into the dregs of immorality, futility and falsehood. Smitten by the spell of music and singing, people wander aimlessly in lands of fantasy and imagination. They are separated from reality and truth by the nifaaq which music and singing implant into the heart. Allah Ta’ala therefore, in this aayat, proclaims to shaitaan to proceed with his evil work using his voice.

(1) Hadhrat Mujaahid (rahmatullah alayh) in his tafseer of the aayat says: “With your voice, i.e. with singing.” (Ruhul Ma-aani)

(2) Allaamah Suyuti (rahmatullah alayh) states:”Mujaahid said: ‘It means singing and musical instruments.’ Hasan Basri (rahmatullah alayh) said: ‘It refers to the duff.'” (Al-Akleel)

It is significant that according to Hadhrat Hasan Basri (rahmatullah alayh) even the duff comes within the scope of this prohibition since he avers that the voice of shaitaan also applies to the sound of the duff. Since Hadhrat Hasan (rahmatullah alayh) was the Khaleefah (spiritual representative) of Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), he actively propagated the Math-hab of Hadhrat Ali in this regard. According to Hadhrat Ali (radhiyallahu anhu), even the duff is haraam.

(3) Hadhrat Dhuh-haaq (rahmatullah alayh) comments: “It is the sound of the flute.” (Tafseer Qurtubi)

(4) Ibn Abu Haatim (rahmatullah alayh) narrates in his tafseer of this aayat that Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) said:”It refers to every act which invites to sin. It is well-known that singing is among the greatest acts inviting towards sin. Precisely for this reason has it been described as the voice of shaitaan.” (Ighaathatul Luhfaan)

Allah Ta’ala states in the Qur’aan Majeed: “What! Are you surprised at this speech (the Qur’aan)? You laugh, do not cry and you sing.” (53:59-61)

(1) Imaam Abu Ubaid said that in the dialect of Hameer the word samood (from which the term saamidoon’ in this aayat is derived) refers to singing. Hadhrat Ikramah also tenders the same explanation. (Ruhul Ma-aani)

(2) Allaamah Ibn Manzoor says: “It is narrated from Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) that he said: ‘Samood is singing in the dialect of Hameer.'” (Lisaanul Arab)

(3) Abdur Razzaaq, Bazzaar, Ibn Jareer and Baihqi narrated that Ibn Abbaas (radhiyallahu anhu) said in the tafseer of this aayat: “It is singing in the Yamaani dialect. When they (the mushrikeen) would hear the Qur’aan, they would sing to show their disdain.” (Ruhul Ma-aani)

In these verses, the Qur’aan Majeed criticizes singing. It describes singing and music variously with the terms lahwal Hadith, samood and zoor. In one aayat it is described as the voice of shaitaan. From the Qur’aan Majeed it is abundantly clear that the general rule pertaining to singing even without music is prohibition. All the authorities of the Shariah from the very time of the Sahaabah, unanimously claim that the Qur’aan prohibits singing and music. There can, therefore, be no scope for difference on this issue. Any difference attributed to an accepted personality of Islam is undoubtedly an error of judgement.

The Majlis (Sawtush Shaytaan)


Before you jump to conclusion, please listen to these videos and make dua to Allah to guide you

May Allah protect us from the conspiracy of shaytan


a comment from the same blog above

For music

Music was one of the favourite cultural traditions of the Arabs in the days of the Prophet Muhammad (sws). Music and musical instruments were frequently used in worship rituals. It was also employed in the expression of delight and sorrow. Music accompanied wars and festivals too. A study of the traditions ascribed to the Holy Prophet (sws) reveals that not only did he express his likeness for Music but he also encouraged others to play it on festive occasions. Some reliable narratives in this regard make it clear that the mother of the believers, ‘A’ishah (rta) listened to songs in the very presence of the Holy Prophet (sws). The Holy Prophet (sws) himself is reported to have encouraged people to use music on wedding ceremonies. On his migration from Makkah to Madinah, the women sang welcome songs on the Daff and the Holy Prophet (sws) expressed his approbation of this. At another occasion, a professional female singer and musician approached him and requested him to listen to her song. The Holy Prophet (sws) not only himself listened to her song but also took ‘A’ishah (rta) to listen to her. The mother of the believers leaned on the Holy Prophet’s (sws) shoulders and enjoyed the performance for a considerable time. During journeys, the Messenger of God showed his likeness for the Hida, a kind of desert song. He is also reported to have appointed a Hadi for his camels who was endowed with a very sweet sound. He also emphasized beating the Daff in order to announce Nikah. Various traditions have been recorded in the books of Hadith on these issues. A study of some of these traditions follows.

i. Music on the ‘Id Festival
Narrates ‘A’ishah (rta): The Messenger (sws) of God came to my residence while two female singers were singing the songs of Bu‘ath.1 The Holy Prophet (sws) lay down and turned his face to the other side. Meanwhile Abu Bakr (rta) entered and [seeing the singers] rebuked me thus: ‘Satanic musical instruments in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sws)?’ On hearing this God’s Messenger (sws) turned towards him and said: ‘Let them [sing and rejoice]’. When Abu Bakr was engaged in some other business, I signaled to the girls [to go out] and they left. It was on the ‘Id day.2 (Bukhari, No: 907)

We can conclude from this narrative the following points:

· The Mother of the believers, ‘A’ishah (rta), was listening to songs on ‘Id day.

· The songs were being sung in the residence of the Holy Prophet (sws).

· A professional singer was performing.3

· The song was not a hymn to God; rather a relic of a war fought before the advent of Islam.

· The mother of the believers did not stop listening to the song even after the Holy Prophet had arrived.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) did not forbid her from listening to the song.

· He did not stop the female singers either.

· He himself was not attracted to the performance but he must have heard the song as he could hear Abu Bakr’s comments.

· Abu Bakr (rta) condemned the practice at first sight and declared that these were satanic instruments.

· When he tried to stop the singers and censure the listeners, the Holy Prophet (sws) stopped him from doing so.

The report evidently proves that the Holy Prophet (sws) allowed singing music during religious festivals. This is evidenced by the fact that Holy Prophet’s (sws) wife enjoyed singing and music. Although Abu Bakr (rta) tried to stop the function, the Holy Prophet (sws) did not interfere with it, and let the performers and the audience enjoy themselves. Therefore, in light of this evidence we can conclude that music can justifiably be considered allowable in Islam.

The following narrative also deals with the issue:

Umm-i-Salamah narrates: A slave girl belonging to Hassan Ibn Thabit (rta) came to us on ‘Id al Fitr. Her hair was unkempt and she carried a tambourine and was singing [some song]. Umm-i-Salamah rebuked her. But the Holy Prophet (sws) said to her: ‘Ummi-i-Salamah, let her [sing and rejoice]. Certainly every nation has an ‘Id and this day is our ‘Id’. (Mu‘jam Al-Kabir, No: 558)

ii. Music on Wedding Ceremonies

Narrates Ibn ‘Abbas: ‘A’ishah (rta) arranged the marriage of a close Ansari girl. The Holy Prophet (sws) also came to attend the ceremony. He inquired from the people: ‘Have you sent forth the bride?’ ‘Yes’, they replied. ‘Did you send any singer with her?’ He asked. ‘A’ishah (rta) replied in the negative. The Holy Prophet (sws) then remarked: ‘The Ansar cherish singing. It would be better that you sent along with her a singer who would sing’4

‘We have come to you; we have joined you. Peace be upon us. Peace be upon you.’5 (Ibn Majah, No: 1900)

The narrative delineates the following points:

· The way the Holy Prophet (sws) inquired about singing and playing music on this occasion reveals that it was customary for the Arabs to send a singer with the bride when sent to join the bridegroom.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) was not pleased to hear that the custom was abandoned on that occasion.

· He encouraged people to adhere to the custom.

· He suggested some couplets to be recited on such occasions though he did not sing them.

· He referred to the characteristics of the Ansar and did not express his disapproval of the same.

The narrative proves that the Holy Prophet (sws) approved of singing and playing music on marriage ceremonies. Some other versions of the narrative reveal that the Prophet (sws) noticed that there was no singing or music being played in the house where the marriage ceremony was being conducted. He felt strange and inquired about the reason. Consider the following text of the narrative:

‘A’ishah (rta) reports: An Ansari girl lived under my guardianship and I arranged her marriage. The Holy Prophet (sws) came to my house on the day she was married and did not hear any songs or any other joyful activities. [Observing this] he asked of me: ‘Did you people sing to her or not?’ ‘This is the tribe of the Ansar who like singing,’ he added. (Ibn Hibban, No: 5875)

iii. Use of Music on Joyous Occasions

Ibn ‘A’ishah narrates: When the Holy Prophet (sws) came to Madinah, the women and the children started singing: ‘The Moon has risen upon us from the hillocks of Wida‘. We owe gratitude [to God] as long as those who call God continue doing so. O Prophet (sws) you have brought a religion that is worthy to be followed’.6

Narrates Anas Ibn Malik: [Having entered the city], the Holy Prophet (sws) passed through a certain part of the town. Suddenly some slave girls appeared singing on the Daff the following ditty: ‘We are the slave girls of Bani Najjar.7 How lucky! This day the Holy Prophet (sws) has come to be our neighbor’. At this the Holy Prophet (sws) remarked: ‘God knows that I love you people’8 (Ibn Majah, No: 1899)

These narratives deal with the Holy Prophet’s arrival in Madinah after his migration from Makkah. Their content can be summarized in the following points:

· The Holy Prophet’s arrival in Madinah was an extremely joyous occasion.

· People expressed their joy by singing joyous songs.

· Slave girls were also from among the singers.

· They had musical instruments to play with their songs.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) and the Companions (rta) heard these songs but they did not express their disapproval.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) expressed his love and kindness for singing women.

These and other similar narratives sufficiently prove that when the Holy Prophet (sws) reached Madinah after his migration from Makkah, he received a warm welcome. The city had a festive appearance. Every one was filled with joy on the Holy Prophet’s arrival. Women, slave girls, singing women and children expressed their joy by singing welcome songs and playing the Daff. The Holy Prophet (sws) appreciated this. Therefore, one cannot deny the fact that the Holy Prophet (sws) sanctioned celebrating joyous occasion by singing melodies using musical instruments.

iv. Use of Music during Travels:

Narrates Salama Ibn Al-Akwa‘: ‘We set off for Khaybar in the company of the Holy Prophet (sws) at night. A man from the group said to ‘Amir: ‘O ‘Amir, would not you let us hear your poetry?’ ‘Amir who was a Hida poet got down and started reciting for the people [the following verses]: ‘O God, were not it for your guidance, we could not have been able to offer the Salah and pay the Zakah. So please forgive our sins that [we have committed] and the ones we may commit in future. We are ready to offer our lives for your cause. Grant us perseverance when faced [with the enemy] and pour down your mercy upon us. [We are the people] who refuse to surrender when the enemy challenges us to fight. And [we leave them] to cry for help against us’.

The Holy Prophet asked: ‘Who is that signer?’ They replied: ‘‘Amir bin Al-Akwa‘’. ‘God bless him’, prayed the Holy Prophet (sws)9. (Bukhari, No: 3960)

We learn from the narrative that:

· The Companions were along with the Holy Prophet (sws) on his way to Khaybar.

· Some of the Companions requested ‘Amir (rta) to sing from his Hida (i.e. song sung primarily to drive camels, which correspond to their walk). He complied with the request and began his recitation with such a loud voice that the Holy Prophet (sws) could hear him.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) inquired about the singer approvingly.

· Since he had recited good verses the Holy Prophet (sws) prayed for him.

Hida is a form of the desert poetry. The verses in this kind of poetry are rhymed corresponding to the pace of the footsteps of the camels. Ancient Arab camel drivers would sing this kind of poetry while travelling through the desert. Though the primary purpose of this singing was to encourage the camels to walk speedily yet the camel drivers themselves enjoyed it a lot. Many Hadith narratives refer to this practice of the time and evidently prove that the Holy Prophet (sws) and his Companions would enjoy this kind of poetry.

According to other narratives on the same subject, the Holy Prophet (sws) had appointed Anjashah, who had a very pleasing voice, to serve as a Hadi (i.e. camel driver) during his travels in the desert. During one of the travels, the camels started to pace very quickly affected by the sweetness of his sound. The Holy Prophet (sws) stopped him lovingly from singing Hida. He asked the singer not to force the beasts to walk at a faster pace so that female riders do not fall down. ‘Anas Ibn Malik reports:

The Holy Prophet had a Had, Anjashah. He had a very sweet sound. [During one of his journeys] the Holy Prophet (sws) said to him: ‘Slow down, Anjashah, lest you should break the delicate goblets. Qatadah explained that the Prophet (sws) was referring to delicate women. (Bukhari, No: 5857)

According to the scholars Hida’ definitely is a type of singing. Dr. Jawwad Ali writes:

Hida is of the oldest type of singing in Arabia that was specifically used during travels and is still used in contemporary Bedouin society. Besides, since the Hida songs suit sorrowful situation, this type of singing was used in mourning etc. as well. The Holy Prophet (sws) got a Hida singer appointed for him called Al-Barra’ Ibn Malik Ibn Nadar Al-Ansari who would drive camels for male riders. Another Had of his was Anjashah who had a very melodious tone. He was a black slave of the Holy Prophet (sws) who was employed to serve as a Had for the camels of the wives of the Holy Prophet (sws). 10

He further writes:

Al-Hida’ actually is the singing used among the desert dwellers … this kind of singing corresponds with the tones cherished by the desert dwellers and also with their simple and natural mourning songs that please the nomadic tastes of these Bedouins. 11

Ibn Khaldun writes in his book, Muqaddamah, that the basic purpose of Hida was not only to please the caravan members but also to urge the camels to proceed faster.

This feeling of joy is even found in speechless animals not to mention humans. Therefore we see that the camels respond to the Hida of the riders, and the horses are affected by the whistles and shrill sounds. We already know that animals receive effects of the songs if they are rhythmical, and correspond to the rules governing the art of music.12

v. Musical Instruments

Narrates Rabi‘, daughter of Mu‘wwadh: On the occasion of my transfer to my husband’s home after marriage, the Holy Prophet (sws) came to visit us and sat down on my bed just as you [the next narrator] are sitting before me now. Some slave girls were beating the Daff and singing in lamentation of their forefathers who had been killed during the battle of Badr. Then one of the girls sang: ‘Among us is the Prophet (sws) who knows even what will happen in coming days’. At this, the Holy Prophet (sws) said: ‘Do not say this, but go on singing.13 (Bukhari, No: 3779)

We learn from the narrative that:

· The Holy Prophet (sws) attended a marriage ceremony where some slave girls were singing.

· Singing was not stopped on his arrival.

· The singers used the Daff with their singing.

· The Holy Prophet (sws) heard them [this is evident from the fact that he stopped them from uttering certain words.]

· He however ordered them to continue with what they were singing before.

This effectively proves that the Holy Prophet (sws) did not impose any restriction on using the Daff, a common musical instrument used in that society. Keeping in view the information we received through the above mentioned narratives we can conclude that Arabs of the times of the Holy Prophet (sws) would use musical instrument to accompany their singing on joyous occasions. This has been done in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sws) to which he did not object. Some other narratives even tell us that the Holy Prophet (sws) even ordered the people to use musical instruments at the occasion of marriage.

The Holy Prophet (sws) said: ‘the only thing that distinguishes the allowable act (i.e. Nikah) from the forbidden one (fornication) is the beat of the tambourine and open declaration of the Nikah.14 (Ibn Majah, No: 1896)

The Daff no doubt is an old musical instrument to be played by hand, which remained in use from ancient times. In this regard, Dr. Jawwad ‘Ali writes:

The Daff is one of the most well known primitive musical instruments. It is used to express joy and high spirit. Women also play it. The Arabs would commonly use it on their most joyous occasions. When the Holy Prophet (sws) reached Madinah he was welcomed with the singing of songs and playing of the Daff. Usually, the Arabs would use it on joyful ceremonies like weddings, and would sing songs along with it.15

The Bible also contains references to the Daff as a musical instrument at various occasions. One of the Urdu Bible dictionaries, Qamus Al-Kitab, defines the instrument thus:

It was a kind of narrow hoop musical instrument which was held in [one] hand and played [by striking it with the other.] It was used to create rhythm while singing and dancing. It would offer much cheerfulness in celebrations and processions.16

vi. Art of Music
Narrates Sa’ib Ibn Yazid: A woman came to the Holy Prophet (sws). He asked ‘A’ishah (rta): ‘Do you know her?’ ‘No, O Prophet (sws) of God’ she replied. ‘This is the female professional singer of such and such tribe. Do you want her to sing to you?’ So the woman sang for her. 17 (Bayhaqi, No: 8940)

We learn from the narrative:

· A woman connected with the art of music18 came to the Holy Prophet (sws).

· She expressed her desire to sing to ‘A’ishah (rta)

· The Holy Prophet (sws) did not express dislike for this nor did he rebuke her.

· He introduced her to ‘A’ishah (rta).

· With the permission from the Holy Prophet (sws), the singer sang to ‘A’ishah (rta).

The narrative evidences that the Holy Prophet (sws) did not consider singing evil in its nature. Had it been the case he would have hindered the woman from doing so or at least he would not have allow ‘A’ishah (rta) to listen to her song. Some other narratives tell us that such professional singers and dancers, both men and women, were common among the Arabs of that time, and the Holy Prophet (sws) did not deem it undesirable to enjoy their performance.

Consider the following narratives:

Narrates ‘A’ishah (rta): The Holy Prophet (sws) was present among us when suddenly we heard children creating noise. The Holy Prophet (sws) stood up. [We found out] that a black slave woman was dancing encircled by children. The Holy Prophet (sws) [called me] saying: ‘‘A’ishah (rta), come and watch’. I came [to him] placed my chin over the Prophet’s shoulders and watched through the space between his shoulders and head. The Holy Prophet (sws) asked many times: ‘Have you not got enough of it?’ In order to know how he cares for me I continued replying in the negative. Meanwhile ‘Umar (rta) came and the gathering disbursed [seeing him]. At this the Holy Prophet commented: ‘I see that the devils from among the Jinn and the humans have fled at ‘Umar arrival.’ 19 (Tirmidhi, No: 3691)

Abdullah Ibn Buridah narrates on the authority of his father: The Holy Prophet (sws) returned from some of his military expeditions. A black slave girl approached him and said: ‘I had vowed to beat the Daff before you if God brought you back unhurt’. The Holy Prophet replied: ‘If you have, then proceed’. She started beating the Daff. Meanwhile Abu Bakr (rta) came and she continued beating it. Later when ‘Umar (rta) came she covered her instrument under herself as soon as she saw him. At this the Holy Prophet (sws) commented: ‘‘Umar, even Satan fears you’. (Bayhaqi, No: 19888)

The overall situation depicted in the above narratives makes it clear that the word ‘Habshiyyah’ and ‘Jariyyah Sawda’u’ connote professional singer slave-girl. For it would not be possible for a common lady to perform before the general public.

The word ‘Qaynah’ in the above mentioned narrative from Sunan Al-Bayhaqi connotes a professional female singer. The context does not permit any other explanation. Besides, it is a known fact that in the Arabic language the word has been used as a term for a professional female singer. The author of Lisan Al-‘Arab writes, ‘and the word ‘Qaynah’ means female slave singer.’20

Black male and female slaves excelled in the art of dancing and music. Many narratives provide sufficient evidence that they exhibited their skill in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sws) at numerous occasions and he did not condemn it.

vii. Dance

Anas (rta) narrates: Black slaves were dancing in front of the Messenger (sws) of God and sang the following words: ‘Muhammad (sws) is a pious person’. The Holy Prophet (sws) [did not understand their utterances] and asked what they were saying. The people replied: ‘they say that Muhammad (sws) is a pious person’. (Ahmad, No: 12562)

We learn from the narrative that:

· Some black slaves were dancing in the presence of the Holy Prophet (sws).

· They were singing the praise of the Holy Prophet (sws).

· The Holy Prophet (sws) did not stop them from doing so.

· He was interested in their performance. This is revealed by his question about their utterances.

The Hadith literature contains enough evidence to the fact that professional dancers from among the Abyssinian slaves used to perform before the Arabs. The nobles of Arabia would not consider enjoying such performances as undesirable. Therefore they would invite such artists to perform on their festive occasions. Dr Jawwad ‘Ali writes:

The Abyssinians were famous for their love of dancing. The people of Makkah and of other territories of Hijaz would call upon them to perform their special dances and sing songs whenever they would hold joyous ceremonies like marriage, circumcision and other similar festive occasions.21

Many Hadith narratives show that ‘A’ishah (rta) enjoyed the dancing feast of the Abyssinian slaves along with the Holy Prophet (sws).

Narrates ‘A’ishah (rta): Once on an ‘Id day the Abyssinian slaves came and started dancing in the mosque. The Holy Prophet (sws) called me. I placed my head on the Holy Prophet’s shoulder and started watching their performance. [The Holy Prophet did not stop me] until I myself got tired of watching them and turned away. (Muslim, No: 892)

viii. The Prophet’s Praise for a Melodious Voice

Narrates Abu Musa: The Holy Prophet (sws) [heard him recite the Holy Qur’an] and commented: ‘O Abu Musa, you have been given one of the musical wind-instruments of the nation of David’.

The narrative tells us:

· The Holy Prophet (sws) liked reciting the Qur’an in sweet sound.

· He rendered it analogous to using musical instruments.

· He appreciated the musical instruments used by people of David (sws).

This markedly shows that the Holy Prophet (sws) liked melodious utterances. The words of the narrative shows that the reason the Holy Prophet (sws) praised Abu Musa’s recitation was the sweetness of his voice. Obviously, this sweetness of sound should always be considered a desirable thing; not only this sweetness will be enjoyed while reciting the Holy Qur’an but also other poetry, for example, poetical compositions in praise of God and exalting Him and in expressing other good subjects or poetry. In all these things, a beautiful voice should be equally considered a virtue. The art of music and singing is nothing but rhythmical melodious themes. There is no doubt that the principles of reciting the Qur’an beautifully are different from the ones used in common musical notes. However, this is equally true that the treble and bass and beauty and delicacy of utterance are elements common in the Qur’anic recitation and other types of singing. Seen in this perspective, both arts have a common trait of some sort.

Furthermore, the narrative approves of the musical instruments of David (sws). Thus the Holy Prophet (sws) recognized Biblical accounts regarding David (sws) and his followers about their use of music and musical instruments in singing the praises of God. That is the reason the great exegetes of the Qur’an have recorded this Hadith narrative in connection with the Qur’anic verses dealing with David’s praises of God. While commenting on verse 79 of Surah Anbiya, the celebrated commentator of the Qur’an, Ibn Kathir writes:

And this was because of his reciting the Psalms in a melodious voice. When he would sing it the birds would stop in the air and sang in response to David; so did the mountains. It is for this reason that when the Holy Prophet (sws) passed Abu Musa Ash‘ari (rta), when he was offering his night prayer, he stopped and listened to his recitation for he had a very beautiful voice. The Holy Prophet (sws) said: ‘Indeed he (Abu Musa) has been bestowed one of the musical instruments of the people of David (sws)’. Hearing this, Abu Musa said: ‘Had I known that he [the Holy Prophet] was listening, I would have pleased him more’. Abu ‘Uthman Nahdi says that he did not find any drum, flute or a reed sound more pleasing than the voice of Abu Musa.22

Therefore it may safely be concluded that the Holy Prophet (sws) believed in the fact that David (sws) had a melodious voice.

1. War fought between the two tribes of the Ansar, namely Aws and Khazraj, before the advent of Islam.

2. This Hadith is Sahih (authentic).

3. The word ‘Jariyah’ used in the narrative is usually taken to mean young girls. Although the word connotes young girls in certain contexts but there is little room to accept it as such. In this context, the word connotes a slave woman who is a professional singer and well known for her profession. This is evidently proved by the context in which the word is used here, and by the fact that another version of the same narrative has the word ‘Qaynah’ ( i.e. a professional female singer) has been used instead of Jariyah. The text of the narrative follows:

‘A’ishah (rta) narrates that once Abu Bakr (rta) came to her on the day of ‘Id Al-Fitr or ‘Id Al-Adha in the presence of the Prophet (sws). There were two female singers with her, singing the songs which the Ansar had sung on the day of Bu‘ath. Abu Bakr remarked twice: the ‘Why these satanic instruments?’ The Prophet heard him and said to him: ‘Let them sing. Every nation has an ‘Id and this day is our ‘Id’. (Bukhari, No: 3716)

4. In Bukhari, the narrative has been worded thus:

‘A’ishah (rta) reported that once she married a woman to an Ansari man. The Prophet (sws) said: ‘O ‘A’ishah, what is it that there is no singing and playing whereas the Ansar take delight in this’. (No: 4867)

5. This Hadith is Hasan.

6. ‘Ali Ibn Burhan al-Din Halbi, Al-Sirah Al-Halbiyyah fi Sirah Al-Amin, 1st ed., vol. 2, (Beruit: Dar Al-Marifah, 1400 AH), pp. 234-5

7. It would not be correct to translate the word ‘Jawari’ as young girls. Some other version of the narrative has the word ‘Qaynat’ (a woman who is a professional singer) instead of ‘Jawari’.

Anas Ibn Malik narrates that when the Prophet (sws) passed by a clan of Bani Najjar, he noticed some slave girls were singing on Daff: ‘We are the singers of Bani Najjar. We are lucky enough to have the Prophet (sws) as our neighbour today’. Then the Prophet (sws) said: ‘God knows that my heart feels affection for you people’. (Al-Mu‘jam Al-Saghir, No: 78)

8. This Hadith is Sahih (i.e. authentic).

9. This Hadith is Sahih (i.e. authentic)

10. Dr Jawwad ‘Ali, Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh Al-‘Arab Qabl Al-Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 5, (Baghdad: Maktabah Al-Nahdah, 1978), p. 116

11. Dr Jawwad ‘Ali, Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh Al-‘Arab Qabl Al-Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 5, (Baghdad: Maktabah Al-Nahdah, 1978), p. 117

12. Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddamah, 1st ed., (Berut: Mu’assasah Al-‘Alami li Al-Matbu‘at), pp. 258

13. This Hadith is Sahih (i.e. authentic).

14. Secret marriage contract is not considered valid in the Islamic Shari‘ah. Thus open declaration of the marriage is one of the basic requirements for the validity of a Nikah. That is why the Prophet (sws) rendered it desirable to beat the Daff on this occasion during his time. Consider the following narrative:

‘Ali (rta) narrates: ‘Once the Holy Prophet (sws) and his Companions passed the tribe of Bani Zariq. He heard singing sounds and music. ‘What is this?’ he inquired. People replied: ‘Messenger of God, the Nikah of such and such [person is being conducted]’. ‘His religiosity now reaches the zenith’ said the Prophet (sws). ‘This is the prescribed way of Nikah. Neither adultery nor secret marriage is allowed until one hears the sound of the Daff or watches the smoke rising. Husayn said: ‘I was also informed by ‘Amr Ibn Yahya Al-Mazani that the Prophet would disapprove of secret marriage [and would not accept it] until the Daff was played’. (Bayhaqi, No: 14477)

The Prophet (sws) held it necessary for the Arabs of his time to use the Daff to announce the wedding considering the prevailing custom and cultural traditions of the Arabs of that time. In current times, the purpose can be met through any other available means.

15. Dr Jawwad ‘Ali, Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh Al-‘Arab Qabl Al-Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 5, (Baghdad: Maktabah Al-Nahdah, 1978), p. 108

16. F.S.Khayrullah, Qamus Al-Kitab, 5th ed., (Lahore: Masihi Kutub Khanah, 1993), p. 978

17. This Hadith is Sahih (i.e. authentic).

18. Here the word Qaynah has been used which stands for a professional female singer.

19. Some people present this narrative to prove that the art of music is evil in nature. They base their argument on the prophetic saying, ‘I see that Satan from among the Jinn and the humans have fled when ‘Umar arrived’. They claim that the Prophet (sws) related music with Satan and thus expressed his dislike for it. We understand that the sentence is only expressive of sarcasm, which he used to express the harshness of ‘Umar’s disposition. If the words are taken in their literal meaning then one wonders what explanation is to be given for the presence of the Prophet (sws), ‘A‘ishah (rta) and Abu Bakr (rta).

20. This is the well acknowledged meaning of the word. The word has been used in this implication before and after the advent of Islam. Imra’ Al-Qays says:

(No worry if I have grown sorrowful. How many delicate singing slave girls did I employ on playing a Kiran. They had such musical instruments in their hands which on being stirred by the hands gave heavy sound that spread through the whole band of troops.)

21. Dr Jawwad ‘Ali, Al-Mufassal fi Tarikh Al-‘Arab Qabl Al-Islam, 2nd ed., vol. 5, (Baghdad: Maktabah Al-Nahdah, 1978), p. 122

22. Ibn Kathir, Tafsir, vol. 3, (Lahore: Amjad Academy, 1982), p. 187


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